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A good example of using reinforcers would be when parents use small rewards when teaching young children new skills and with the process of potty training. The small rewards, regardless of what they may be, would be considered reinforcers. The unwanted repercussions are known as punishers, as they decrease the chances that one will repeat the behavior because something bad happened. Punishments can include anything from time-outs to a prison sentence.
Morris, C. G. [link widoczny dla zalogowanych], & Maisto , A. A. (2005). Psychology: An Introduction, Twelfth Edition. Prentice- Hall.
Skinner performed a renowned experiment using pigeons to demonstrate superstitious behavior. The results of this experiment exhibited the tendency for one to repeat a behavior that one associates with a positive result when that positive result was nothing more than a coincidence to the behavior that was performed. Normally, superstition is associated with a negative consequence and certain behaviors to be avoided. This developed after the experiment as the antithesis of the study’s results.
B.F. Skinner’s contributions to psychology are important to the concepts of learning. Learning is a very complex process and involves more factors than one normally considers. Operant conditioning, punishment [link widoczny dla zalogowanych], and even superstition is involved in the complexities of learning. Skinner’s work with superstitious behavior and operant conditioning has opened the door for greater understanding of how one learns and the origin of superstition.
Reinforcement, whether positive or negative, results in wanting to repeat the behavior, where punishment is used to curb a behavior and is quantified as a punishment.
B.F. Skinner was an important contributor to the psychology arena of the scientific community. While he made many contributions to psychology, Skinner is known most often for his influential study regarding superstition. In addition to superstitious behavior, his major additions to the science of psychology are in regards to operant conditioning [link widoczny dla zalogowanych], punishment, and reinforcement.
Reinforcement covers these reinforcers and punishers in greater depth. Reinforcers include both positive and negative reinforcement. Positive reinforcement is using reinforcers that add something good to a situation. Negative reinforcement is using reinforcers that remove something negative from a situation. It is important to note that negative reinforcement is not the same as punishment.
B.F. Skinner on Superstition
Skinner's Theory on Operant Conditioning
Operant conditioning is the technical term for learning behaviors through either positive or negative reinforcement. All decisions and situations in life have consequences, and one learns from either being rewarded for good choices or being punished in some way by bad choices. This could be a reward from a teacher for a good paper or wrecking a car because one drove drunk. These rewards are known as reinforcers, as they increase the chances that one will repeat the behavior because something good happened.
Skinner's Theories on Learning and Reinforcement
Fear Appeals In Health Promotion Interventions
Learning by Conditioning
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